This may be old news to some, but although I had heard of using cURL for downloading files off the internet from a command line (as a wget alternative), I didn’t know that it was actually capable of doing much, much more. In fact, cURL is a very good allrounder at doing anything related to transmitting and receiving data using popular protocols such as HTTP(S), (S)FTP, TELNET, LDAP and more. In particular, you can use it to test your Web application with very little effort!
I am currently programming for a Java Servlet based Web application, where I need to assemble HTTP requests on the client side and dissect them on the server side. More precisely, I have a servlet which extracts data from an HTTP multipart request (using Apache Commons FileUpload) and hand it over to the logic for further processing. Of course, I have to write lots of code for checking whether requests are valid and so forth. So, in order to test this code, I want to send “malformed” requests, by which I mean requests that do not carry data expected by the application in its current state. Instead of setting up a complex test environment or even modifying your client code to send bad data, you can simply use cURL.
cURL uses a simple command line interface; I will show you the most important flags. Let’s assume we have a simple RESTful Web application which manages books. We could use cURL to retrieve the list of available books like this:
This will issue an HTTP GET on the specified URL. The -v flag tells cURL to be verbose, which means it will print all sent and received HTTP headers, the payload of the server reply, plus some additional status information to the standard output. The complete output might look something like this:
* About to connect() to localhost port 8080 (#0)
* Trying 127.0.0.1… connected
* Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 8080 (#0)
> GET /mybookstore/books HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.18.0 (i586-pc-mingw32msvc) libcurl/7.18.0 zlib/1.2.3
> Host: localhost:8080
> Accept: */*
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
< Content-Type: application/xml;charset=utf-8
< <books><book author=”David Flanagan”>Java In A Nutshell</book><book author=”Stephen Hawking”>A Brief History Of Time</book>…</books>
The > symbol indicates data going to the server, while < indicates data coming from the server. If that’s not verbose enough for you, try using the --trace-ascii <filename> argument instead. It will log the client/server conversation to the specified file.
So, what about sending data? It’s actually just as easy. Suppose we want to store a new book by supplying its title and author:
curl http://localhost:8080/mybookstore/books -F “title=Wikinomics” -F “author=D. Tapscott, A. D. Williams”
What this does is issueing an HTTP POST to the specified address, submitting the given data using the multipart/form-data MIME type. Now that was easy! If you don’t want to type all the input data on the command line, you can also let cURL read data from a file by prefixing the value with @ followed by the file name, which makes perfect sense when transmitting binary data or long text documents. As to the way how cURL transmits the data, you can also use the -d flag, which will result in the data being POST-ed as an application/x-www-form-urlencoded string, or use the same -d flag in combination with -G to issue a GET request instead and sending the data as a URL parameter (query string).
Another noteworthy aspect about cURL is that you can use it to manage cookies. Let’s assume our book server requires the user to login first, and that the server remembers us by setting a session cookie. Ponder the commands below, where we use cURL first to authenticate with our server, and then add a new book in the same session:
In the first line, we tell cURL to use the file cookies.txt as its “cookie jar”, which means that it will store all cookies set by the server in this file. We can leverage the session data stored in that file (for a Servlet container this would be a JSESSIONID) in consecutive requests in order to remain authenticated, by setting the value of the -b flag to the cookie jar. You can also use key/value pairs as an argument to -b, but using an intermediary file is more convenient.